Similar to German journalism, the SPD has become a smoke screen of neo-liberalism. Today, companies have not only become the winners of the redistribution of past decades, but they have become net savers instead of being the most important net debtor. As a result, they have become a sector of the economy that does not, as in the past, help to solve the crucial problem of every economy, namely stimulating investment activity in spite of other sectors being net-debtors. No, companies as a whole have joined the savers, which makes it clear that they did not deserve redistribution in their favour.
In this situation, as the new coalition intends to do, adhering strictly to the black zero, i. If something stands out in this Coalition Agreement, then it is the explicit continuation of German mercantilism cost what it may. Here an example:. Germany needs a globally competitive tax system. Open markets and free and fair trade are the basis for growth and employment, and we reject protectionism.
We are committed to a rule-based multilateral trading system within the World Trade Organization. This is pure mercantilism. To put it bluntly: German policy is protectionism pure. It is a policy of increasing exports through wage dumping. The fact that the German mercantilist recipe is to be applied to the whole of Europe does not make it any better.
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As a result on the one hand Germany will use this European mercantilism to restrict the necessary dynamics of domestic demand and, despite its long-winded commitments to Europe, will continue to pursue the policy of exporting unemployment to neighbouring European countries and the rest of the world. In other words, German mercantilism is seen as the recipe for Europe instead of understanding that a huge closed economy like EMU has to rely on domestic demand.
All of this could still be dismissed as the usual German trade ideology, but then comes a statement that shows in all clarity, how unscrupulously and cold-bloodedly the Agreement executes German corporate policy:.
That takes the prize. And this in order to secure the welfare state in Germany! Mind you, wage dumping in poorer countries does not mean that wages in those countries, as in Germany, lag behind productivity, but only that wages are low because of the low productivity there.
By the way, these sentences are apparently also accepted by the German Federation of Trade Unions, whose leader has publicly recommended that the SPD members vote in favour of them. This Agreement is destructive. Even if it should slightly improve the situation of ordinary German citizens with many small measures, there can be no doubt that the direction of economic policy will cause a great deal of damage in Europe, the political and economic consequences of which will sooner or later fall back on Germany.
In the second half of industrial production increased 46 percent from its June level. And a year later, at the end of , that production was 81 percent above what it had been when the reforms had been implemented in the middle of After an initial spike in prices when the controls were abolished, by the end of the greater industrial and agricultural output that was offered on a more open market significantly reduced the cost of living.
The reforms brought about this economic miracle because they eliminated the worst institutional features of what had been Nazi central planning.
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But West Germany was not transformed into a real free-market society. They supported government regulation of the size and composition of large enterprises. They supported urban and rural planning. Thus from the start the institutional order in postwar Germany was one that opened the door to special-interest-group politics, compulsory income redistribution, union-power blackmail over business, and a general culture of political paternalism. If it is in the jurisdiction of the government to decide whether or not definite conditions of the economy justify its intervention, no sphere of operation is left to the market.
That means the market is free as long as it does precisely what the government wants it to do. The market is either free or it is under the regulation of the government. Either individuals are free persons who may peacefully go about their lives and associate with others through voluntary exchange, or they are pawns on a political chessboard, open to manipulation and control whenever their actions do not follow what those in power demand. Richard M. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.
The natural tendency toward specialization and division of labor ran counter to the caste system in feudal Europe and India. Mass production and factory work were challenged by politically connected guildsmen. Technological change was famously attacked by Luddites between and Karl Marx believed that the state should take away all private ownership of the means of production.
How To Create A Real European Social Market Economy
Central authority and government planning have stood as the primary challengers to the market economy throughout history. In contemporary language, this is often presented as socialism versus capitalism. While technical distinctions can be drawn between common interpretations of these words and their actual meanings, they represent the modern manifestations of an age-old conflict: privately run, voluntary markets against state control.
Nearly all modern economists agree that the market economy is more productive and operates more efficiently than centrally planned governments.
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The Establishment of the Socialist Market Economy
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